Study describes the dynamics of immune responses to triple COVID-19 vaccination

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Study describes the dynamics of immune responses to triple COVID-19 vaccination biorxivpreprint MHH_life SARSCoV2 COVID19 ImmuneResponse Vaccination

By Dr. Sanchari Sinha Dutta, Ph.D.Sep 23 2022Reviewed by Aimee Molineux The effectiveness of the three-dose coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and its variants has been described in detail in a recent study. The study report is currently available on the bioRxiv* preprint server.

In the current study, scientists have provided a detailed overview of the humoral and cellular responses induced by three-dose homologous or heterologous COVID-19 vaccination in infection-naïve healthy individuals. Regarding IgA-specific anti-spike antibodies, a significantly increased level was observed in the blood after the second and third vaccination. However, the antibody levels varied considerably among participants.

Cellular immune response induced by COVID-19 vaccination A high individual variability in the absolute number of B and T cell subsets was observed among recipients of COVID-19 vaccination. Notably, the development of spike-specific memory T cells was observed after consecutive COVID-19 vaccinations.


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Proteomics of fibrin amyloid microclots in long COVID/post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) shows many entrapped pro-inflammatory molecules that may also contribute to a failed fibrinolytic system - Cardiovascular DiabetologyBackground Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), also now known as long COVID, has become a major global health and economic burden. Previously, we provided evidence that there is a significant insoluble fibrin amyloid microclot load in the circulation of individuals with long COVID, and that these microclots entrap a substantial number of inflammatory molecules, including those that might prevent clot breakdown. Scientifically, the most challenging aspect of this debilitating condition is that traditional pathology tests such as a serum CRP (C-reactive protein) may not show any significant abnormal inflammatory markers, albeit these tests measure only the soluble inflammatory molecules. Elevated, or abnormal soluble biomarkers such as IL-6, D-Dimer or fibrinogen indicate an increased risk for thrombosis or a host immune response in COVID-19. The absence of biomarkers in standard pathology tests, result in a significant amount of confusion for patients and clinicians, as patients are extremely sick or even bed-ridden but with no regular identifiable reason for their disease. Biomarkers that are currently available cannot detect the molecules present in the microclots we identified and are therefore unable to confirm their presence or the mechanisms that drive their formation. Methods Here we analysed the protein content of double-digested microclots of 99 long COVID patients and 29 healthy controls. The patients suffering from long COVID reported their symptoms through a questionnaire completed by themselves or their attending physician. Results Our long COVID cohort’s symptoms were found to be in line with global findings, where the most prevalent symptoms were constant fatigue (74%,) cognitive impairment (71%) and depression and anxiety (30%). Our most noteworthy findings were a reduced level of plasma Kallikrein compared to our controls, an increased level of platelet factor 4 (PF4) von Willebrand factor (VWF), and a marginally increased level of α-2 antiplasmi
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