How South Africa shaped a world-leading constitution - As part of the 40th anniversary of the Canon Collins Trust, Justice Mavedzenge spoke to Albie Sachs about the legacy of apartheid-era legal activism for Southern Africa
As part of the 40th anniversary of the Canon Collins Trust, Justice Mavedzenge spoke to Albie Sachs about the legacy of apartheid-era legal activism for Southern Africa
, who, during the eighties, stood up against legal oppression in the courts. They created a culture of visionary legal activism which made it possible to start imagining a new legal system where the courts would be used not to oppress the people, but to defend their fundamental rights.”
Sachs:In developing South Africa’s constitution, we moved away from a purely technical, positivistic approach, with the judge seen as the disinterested applier of the letter of the law; into seeing the constitution as a document for transformation and change. It required a different cast of mind, much less technical, but based on the foundational values of human dignity, equality, and freedom.
The need to develop a whole new framework of thinking arose in a very early case, in which the Constitutional Court was split down the middle. There was a provision in the transitional arrangements right at the back of the constitution that said that any cases that were in progress at the time the constitution came into force, would be dealt with as if the constitution had not come into force. It meant that if, in the early days of the new constitutional order there was still a racist statute from before, it could still apply. headtopics.com
I remember the judges being asked to vote. Going around the table. It came to me. “Albie, what do you think?” I was tongue-tied. I just felt it’s impossible; this is a new dawn. This constitution represents a complete breakthrough. We can’t allow that little provision tucked away in transitional arrangements to allow capital punishment, racist statutes, and oppression of women to continue, not for one second, after the new dawn.
One by one other judges also came to that position. That’s when we developed the theory of the purposive interpretation of the constitution. From then onwards, the approach our court applied was to search for the purposes of the constitution, to look to the preamble, look to the whole spirit of the foundational principles and the Bill of Rights, and to set the issues in their historical context.
This required a new depth of thought and agility on the part of the South African Constitutional Court judges. In our judgments we asked: what are the pains of the past that continue to obliterate and subdue the humanity of people in our country? What role can the law play in bringing about transformation and change? And we realised that it was not only the substantive law that had to be fair and just, the very way the law was applied had to be amended, it just had to be far more people-friendly.
It became a source of enormous pride to discover the extent to which courts internationally cited the South African Constitutional Court. In India, our decision on same-sex marriages was relied upon. Our decision about prisoners’ right to vote was quoted in Canada. I’m told by justices of the European Court of Human Rights that they always look to the South African Constitutional Court decisions when developing their approach on how a modern, contemporary, thoughtful and sensitive court should deal with issues. headtopics.com
The late US Supreme Court judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg some years ago commissioned a survey on the most cited top courts in the world. The survey found that the South African Constitutional Court was the second most cited court globally, with only the Canadian Supreme Court getting more mentions. Who would have thought that the land of apartheid would produce a court that has become a beacon of fairness, justice and hope?
This outcome was not accidental. We had seen in South Africa how people had been dehumanised by the law. We had fought against that, using the legal system as much as we could in the apartheid era. We had created a swelling mentality in favour of change. A great number of the people elected to the Constitutional Assembly that had drafted our constitution, had themselves been imprisoned, many exiled, many tortured. They wanted to produce a constitution that would transform the swords of oppression into the ploughshares of hope.
Mavedzenge:This could not have been easy, because judges are wired to think in terms of precedents. Very few judges would want to start a journey into uncharted territories. This group was prepared to do just that, and it set South Africa onto a trajectory, which is completely different from the trajectory that other countries in the region have taken.
Constitutional law expert Justice MavedzengeSachs:When the time came for my generation of judges, who had all been active in the struggle for democracy, to step down from the bench, I was worried. Would we be followed by a new generation of judges who would be super-technical in their approach and turn their backs on the thrust, the energy and the vision of the new constitutional order we had striven to create? headtopics.com
I need not have been concerned. Our court has succeeded in establishing a style of thinking and an approach that is producing enormously positive results in South Africa at key moments. New judges added layer upon layer of fresh reasoning to respond to new issues as they arose.
The resilience and integrity of the judiciary has only intensified since we started out. Our courts have provided very strong jurisprudence made in the image of our constitution, their concern has been with protecting and securing the rights of ordinary citizens in the face of abusive use of state power by some leaders.
Today, 27 years into democracy we can look at the strength of public interest litigation. It has helped create a culture of rights awareness that is deeply embedded in our society. Civil society organisations use the legal system to claim and protect rights. What this shows is the strength of public interest litigation in South Africa and the ability of the courts to protect rights without trespassing unduly into the terrain demarcated by the constitution for parliament and the executive to do their work.
Mavedzenge:The South African Constitutional Court’s jurisprudence has developed out of a courageous culture of judges. The region needs more of this especially in countries like Zimbabwe and Tanzania, where there is such a serious regression in terms of human rights protection. People are being detained without trial, or being denied bail for very flimsy reasons. You also see court orders being disobeyed. And when litigants approach the courts to seek their intervention in enforcing the court orders, you see court orders being reversed by the courts themselves.
Sachs:Kenya provided a fascinating example of how a judiciary can go badly wrong, and yet become transformed. Judges became totally implicated in corruption, taking bribes, brazenly defending the power of a very autocratic ruling elite. After 500 people lost their lives to violence after the elections in 2007, it was felt to be such a calamity — there was no point in going to the court, because the judges were eating out of the hands of the governmental elite.
Popular anger promoted the drafting of a new constitution that provided mechanisms to achieve a transformed judiciary. The judges were constitutionally mandated not to rely on legal technicalities, and to pay special attention to the needs of the marginalised, the dispossessed and the poor. Certainly the first generation of the new judges, led by Chief Justice Willy Mutunga [who had himself been unjustly imprisoned], produced some outstanding decisions that can serve as beacons for the whole continent. So that has been quite a bright moment in African history.Read more: Mail & Guardian »
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'World leading constitution' that nobody or any state has adopted no matter how much you sell it as the best and most progressive, sidestepped and floundered at will or that of the colonial masters and ' 'democratic clerks', but you can go on with your failed narrative, we see it Poor Albie. All that effort. All that loss. For nothing.
This must be the worst constitution in the world or used in an undeserving country. Results is lawlessness, highest murder rate in the world. Highest everything and how is this stupid constitution helping us citizens? Our constitution is racist pierredevos It’s now on paper only, human rights violations being committed daily as an outcome of corrupt thieving ANC MIS-leadership . They have destroyed democracy and this country and kept the poor in the gutter
There's no greater joy than having financial freedom and a life free debts 😊, that's why I keep posting a comment about Mr Albaniacoloum for his profitable company Albaniacoloum South African constitution is tantamount to rubbish! pierredevos Rubbish constitution pierredevos Mxm
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