The volcanic explosion in Tonga destroyed an island—and created many mysteries

'Everything so far about this eruption is off-the-scale weird,' from its deafening blast to its Pacific-wide tsunami

Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai

1/21/2022 1:51:00 AM

'Everything so far about this eruption is off-the-scale weird,' from its deafening blast to its Pacific-wide tsunami

'Everything so far about this eruption is off-the-scale weird,' from its deafening blast to its Pacific-wide tsunami.

"We saw there was a lot more complexity to the history of the volcano," Barker says.Lithos Brenna and his colleagues analyzed the rings of crystals in the rocks that erupted during the two large blasts 900 and 1,800 years ago. Their work suggests that before the volcano unleashed these eruptions, fresh magma was rapidly injected into the chamber—a commonly proposed trigger for many volcanic eruptions. But the rocks from more moderate explosions in 2008 and 2015 lacked these rings, pointing to a constant but slow influx of magma, Brenna says.

Read more: National Geographic »

Mike Trout, Former Colleagues Celebrate Glenn “Hurricane” Schwartz's 27 Years at NBC10

Glenn “Hurricane” Schwartz is retiring! The NBC10 Team comes together to honor and thank him for his amazing 27 years, with a few surprises, including former NBC10 employees and an MLB superstar. Read more >>

If you can spare 10bucks then pls buy my book to support me. For further details check my pinned tweet and RT if you can. Thank you. I thought National Geographic was all about speading knowledge, yet when a person tries to read an article, they are blocked by a box trying to get you to subscribe. No wonder we have so many small minded people. You are part of the problem.

A miraculous holy person named al-Mahdi is coming & he will make electricity disappear with his miracle, so electricity will lost within 10-30 years & technology empire of satan will collapse, anything related to electricity, oil & gun will not work anymore & billions will die. 'But with Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai’s volcanic tip now beneath the surface, scientists have lost sight of any signs that might help understand the volcano's activity.' Underwater drones? Unmanned minisubs?

🖕🏽 🖕🏽🖕🏽🖕🏽 Tl;dr earth mad. humans on notice. It's not off the scale weird it's I have to explain it's not weird they're helping us. What I'm trying to tell you people is that they're here on Earth and I have them here at my place trying to communicate with me which they do. I have never seen an investment company like vip coin pump they always put smile in my face everytime, I invested $1,000 and earn over $4,500 in 7 days Contact admin via Telegram: 📲 William_Usr

First photos show 'unprecedented disaster' after undersea eruption, tsunami hit TongaThick layer of volcanic ash covers Tonga's islands as the first images emerged from the Pacific island nation since it was hit by a massive undersea volcanic eruption and tsunami. Waiting for the climate change fanatics. I owe you an apology to ever doubt your sincerity and professionalism. MarkBromfield00 was just like a dream to me when I received my first payment. After my second payment it became a reality now after several payments it has become a way of life Democrat Rep. Norton parks her vehicle illegally on Capitol Hill.

We will see more of this in the near future, the earth is trying to cool it self down from global warming by blowing out its fever-steam. The earth is a living being, she is our mother 3 They’re coming. 🙏💜 Oh look another article I can't read because it wants me to subscribe... I saw radar of a missle floating around on the internet. Then I saw the blast pattern matching as such.

We heard the sonic boom in nz Sad! Rapharl_musn Correct My theory is that the eruption was a reaction to the asteroid that passed us by around the same time. Tried to read the article but y'all make that impossible, thats the last time I I'll be visiting your site

The Tonga Volcanic Eruption Was So Powerful It Sent Ripples Out Into SpaceThe ongoing volcanic eruption in Tonga began in December 2021, but it wasn't until 5:15 pm local time on January 15, 2022, that the powerful explosion occurred. Hi, I am a structural engineer from Iran who have many ideas. I have summarized some of my ideas on my twitter(I suggest look at the idea of generating electricity by gravity). I want to work with companies and investors. Do you want to cooperate?

the climate is changing rapidly. cataclysms are synchronized. see the international conference GlobalCrisis Time for truth. vulcanforged CreativeSociety Where’s the missle? Yeah from wut I read in other articles. Its strange. We seem to be getting more volcanic eruptions these days Nature calamity We all must be glad it wasn't one of the volcanoes in the Americas or Europe.

Scary Prayers for all affected. You better study it. More are on the way...

Three of Tonga’s smaller islands badly damaged by tsunami waves up to 50 feet highCommunications have been down throughout Tonga since a volcanic eruption on Saturday, but the crew of a ship that made it to the outlying islands reported back that few homes remain standing.

Spectacular image, mother nature is amazing. Tonga Krakatoa did the same thing This one was pretty weak in comparison to other eruptions in the past which wiped out entire civilizations. Twitter used to be where you could read articles from many sources. Now everyone wants you to at least sign up for their email deluge. i miss the old days.

«Το καλό με την επιστήμη είναι ότι είναι αλήθεια είτε πιστεύεις είτε όχι σε αυτήν. – Νιλ ντ ξ Γκράς Τάισον Wishing you a blessed good evening Wealth and financial independence, for the vast majority of those blessed enough to achieve it lisamiabtc3 it takes time but you should know time is the most important variable of the equation.

NFTS R GOING TO KLL US ALL. THERE IS A RAPTURE COMING. REPEEEEEEEENT Do we already know what's the impact on the climate worldwide bc if this? climatechange

Ash from Tonga volcano eruption reaches record altitude but climate cooling unlikelyThe Tonga volcanic eruption was the most powerful our planet has experienced in 30 years. Wow not good for flying awesome pic

Doesn't seem weird to me.

Scientists Are Racing to Understand the Fury of Tonga’s VolcanoThe Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcanic eruption and tsunami that have devastated Tonga are unlike anything volcanologists have seen before.

The volcanic eruption severed Tonga's internet connection, and repairs won't be easyThe sole cable linking Tonga to the global internet backbone in the South Pacific was broken after the eruption. elonmusk Starlink? Starlink is the answer

study documenting the volcano's history. Barker and his colleagues chartered a boat in 2015 to camp for several nights on the volcanic island’s rubbly landscape. As they surveyed the region and collected samples of rock, the team spotted small cones from recent eruptions dotting the seafloor around the primary peak. They also discovered thick layers of fragmented lava rocks and ash, known as pyroclastic flows, from two monstrous eruptions that they later dated to around 900 and 1,800 years old. "We saw there was a lot more complexity to the history of the volcano," Barker says. The chemistry of erupted material might help untangle what made this eruption so powerful, explains , a volcanologist at the University of Otago in New Zealand and an author of the new Lithos  study. As a magma system cools, crystals of different minerals form at different times, which changes the chemistry of the dwindling molten rock. The crystals preserve these changes as they grow, a little like tree rings. Brenna and his colleagues analyzed the rings of crystals in the rocks that erupted during the two large blasts 900 and 1,800 years ago. Their work suggests that before the volcano unleashed these eruptions, fresh magma was rapidly injected into the chamber—a commonly proposed trigger for many volcanic eruptions. But the rocks from more moderate explosions in 2008 and 2015 lacked these rings, pointing to a constant but slow influx of magma, Brenna says. Scientists are now hoping to study the chemistry of the freshly erupted rock to see what it can tell us about this latest event."It'll be interesting to see what the crystals are recording," Brenna says. While these subterranean processes may be driving part of the explosivity, water also likely had a hand in this weekend's blasts, says Geoff Kilgour , a volcanologist with New Zealand's GNS Science who was not part of the study team. Water can supercharge the power of a volcanic explosion, but it remains unclear exactly how it would have sparked the astounding boom from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai. Perhaps, Kilgour suggests, the recent explosion had just the right mix of magma and water; an excess of either one would have generated a more moderate blast."It may be that we've gotten to this Goldilocks zone," he says. A blanket of ash has dulled the usually vibrant plantlife across the string of tropical islands, as shown in this January 17 image of Nomuka, where the tsunami caused extensive damage. Photograph by New Zealand Defense Force via Getty Images Please be respectful of copyright. Unauthorized use is prohibited. Please be respectful of copyright. Unauthorized use is prohibited. Please be respectful of copyright. Unauthorized use is prohibited. Left : A Maxar satellite image taken on December 29, 2021, before the volcano’s most explosive blasts, shows homes and buildings on the archipelago’s most populous island Tongatapu. Right : A Maxar satellite image taken January 18, 2022, shows the region covered with ash after this weekend’s eruption. Photographs by Maxar via Getty Images Airblast tsunami? This latest eruption is layering on even more intrigue because its mighty boom, while energetic, ejected surprisingly little material. Ash from the volcano's past large eruptions can be found on the nearby island of Tongatapu, and that layer is 10 times thicker than the new layer deposited there by the recent event, Barker says. Some scientists now speculate that the enormous, short-lived burst of energy may have helped stir up the unusually large tsunami waves that followed the eruption. Tsunamis usually radiate from a sudden underwater shift, like a submarine landslide down a volcano's flanks or rapid movement of the land in an earthquake. Yet after Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai erupted, waves appeared in some places, such as the Caribbean , far earlier than would be expected of a classic tsunami. The later tsunami waves that crashed on distant shores were also strange. The farther from the trigger a tsunami travels, the more its waves should diminish. While the waves that hit the islands in the Kingdom of Tonga were damaging, they weren't high enough to account for the surprisingly large waves across the ocean. "It basically had a very low decay of tsunami size all around the Pacific, which is really, really unusual," Kilgour says. The shockwave that traveled through the air could have coupled with the sea surface, driving the expansive tsunamis. Just such a process was proposed for the  1883 explosion of Krakatoa, one of the most powerful and deadly volcanic eruptions in recorded history. Modeling the spread and timing of the waves along with mapping changes to the volcano could help explain what drove the large tsunami. Still, Krippner says, the confusing mix of events"is going to change the way we look at this style of eruption—and that doesn't happen that often." Multiple satellites captured the volcano’s tremendous blast as a billowing plume of ash and gas shot into the stratosphere. The eruption is shown here in an image taken by Himawari-8, a Japanese weather satellite. Photograph by Japan Meteorology Agency via AP Please be respectful of copyright. Unauthorized use is prohibited. Trying to monitor a hidden giant The recent event and all its oddities highlight how little is known about submarine volcanoes, says , a seismologist with Western Washington University. Many of these submerged giants linger in the deep ocean, and their blasts usually aren't deadly. Yet this weekend's explosion is a stark reminder of the risks of volcanoes lingering just beneath the waves. For now, Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai seems to have fallen silent. The locals are