The Tonga eruption explained, from tsunami warnings to sonic booms

Scientists and a rattled public are eager to know what caused such a powerful eruption, and what may happen next

Tsunami Warning, Volcanic Lightning

1/16/2022 7:26:00 AM

Scientists and a rattled public are eager to know what caused such a powerful eruption, and what may happen next

The volcanic plume generated record amounts of lightning before producing a blast heard thousands of miles away. Here’s what geologists say drove the event—and what may happen next.

ByBut by late Friday into early Saturday, the volcano was producing tens of thousands of discharges. At one point, this Tongan volcano managed“I couldn’t believe the numbers I was seeing,” says Vagasky. “You don’t usually see that with a volcano. This is something else. There was nowhere else that was that electric on the planet last night.”

The presence of water always ups the odds of lightning, saysThe heat of the eruption also readily transports water vapor into the colder, higher reaches of the atmosphere, where it becomes ice, saysBut the reasons this eruption produced quite so much lightning are impossible to determine at present. “Unfortunately, the volcano is quite remote and there [are] few constraints on the atmospheric profiles in the vicinity of the plume,” Cimarelli says.

Read more: National Geographic »

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I have shill bots that can send marketing messages in 500 different groups nonstop for 5days Dm via WhatsApp +16063733449, on Instagram jamesv_ictor and on Twitter James0642 if interested please Are there huge number of casualties? Any serious property damage? Have to subscribe. I like the digital & print combo.

People nearby r at great risk This eruption is frightening What caused the eruption, what happened and why. Any reason why Japan receive tsunam warning but Taiwan didn't? Taiwan, comparing to Japan is closer to Tonga. Just wondering I have shill bots that can send marketing messages in 500 different groups nonstop for 5days Dm via WhatsApp +16063733449, on Instagram jamesv_ictor and on Twitter James0642 if interested please

GlobalCrisis time4truth CreativeSociety Zemlja se včasih osvobodi notranjega pritiska in to ni prvič ni zadnjič. Človek more biti pripravljen na takšne momente ki so popolnoma naravni da bi škoda bila čim manjša za njega.

Tonga issues tsunami warning after massive undersea volcano eruptionThe eruption of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai underwater volcano, located about 65 kilometres north of Nuku'alofa, caused a 1.2 metre tsunami.

Is it.. is it really. 😢😢 I recorded 2 sonic booms after the shockwave shook my house in New Zealand 1500 miles away. Vid up on my new Twitter Channel. alcotex6688 following Our Earth is giving us a warning. Don't mess with me or face the consequences. 🌍 I am caught in a circle. The clock is ticking and its going to run out soon, I am caught in some messed up stuff which is messing with my survival. If you like helping, pls check my pinned tweet to buy my story and blast me out of this mess. Be the rainbow in my rain🌈♥️😇

Pretty big 🍄 : Gli scienziati e un pubblico turbato sono ansiosi di sapere cosa ha causato un'eruzione così potente, e cosa potrebbe accadere dopo. There's a physics BEFORE the physics but collective unconscious convention--& its scientists--sleep away. It NEVER 'begins' w/an earthquake/tsunami, etc., but w/congealing *energies* so much greater than itself! NonLinear Reality already..*knew* ..& so did I! 1/2 Tonga Tsunami

Pacific Nation of Tonga Issues Tsunami Warning After Undersea Volcano EruptsPacific nation of Tonga issues tsunami warning after undersea volcano erupts.

The awe of mother nature. It's a perfectly natural event. Amazing! nature The core of the earth is Liquid hot magma Dr. Evil has gone to far and we live on the ever moving crust it will soon be a new Hawaii 👽📡🛰️ water surface at rest is horizontal and level water is level. level is horizontal. horizontal is a straight line. a straight line does not curve. ever. in any direction. the surface of all water on earth factually has no curvature - 70% of the earth's surface is water.

Mother Nature is angry. Earth has had enough of humans. What caused a volcanic eruption? Said to be volcanic activity, near a small Island, with .1 million population. I just hope, they are safe. 😟🙏 Η ζωή σας μπορεί να αλλάει μόνο με τις δικές σας προσπάθειες. - Ξέρξης organizat_behav Any word on the people who live in the area?

.....it's fucking covid, I know it. Obviously like everything else it was caused by climate change

Tonga issues tsunami warning after undersea volcano erupts | AP NewsWELLINGTON, New Zealand (AP) — The Pacific nation of Tonga issued a tsunami warning Saturday after an undersea volcano erupted. Video posted to social media showed large waves washing ashore in coastal areas. 4.0? 🤔 Thinking of everyone along the coast. Take care of one another! 🙏🏽 Yeh. You can snag a video off r/wtf if you like.

What caused the eruption, what happened and why. Please make the world end SOON!!!!! thoughtsandprayers Looks like there is another eruption can you imagine if a volcano that size on mainland usa blew up I’m going to go out on a limb and guess that the volcano volcanoed. Portanto eu trarei sobre os humanos um duro tratamento,Trarei sobre eles o que eles mais temem.Porquanto Eu chamei,e ninguém sequer esboçou resposta ; preguei e ninguém deu ouvidos.Praticaram o mal diante da minha pessoa e escolheram fazer tudo quanto me desagrada profundamente!”

Insert the liberal Twitter climate scientists Valcano. I saw one upclose It took my breath away. Maybe valcanos talk to each other. The one I saw had a snowcap.

Kingdom of Tonga May Adopt Bitcoin as Legal Tender, Says Former Member of Parliament – Bitcoin NewsThe Kingdom of Tonga may adopt bitcoin as legal tender, according to a former member of Tonga’s parliament, Lord Fusitu’a. Next-Gen STEAMING PLATFORM UltimoGGesports ULTGG Utility Token bitcoin Damn, that's huge. El Salvador really started a big process. I guess it's not gonna be the last country this year.

THE POWER OF THIS PLANET IS BEYOND BELIEVE.... I’ve been saying it since Elementary school….something like this killed of the dinosaurs!!! Because of this and the gases that are carried off in the winds in many directions this is my theory, and no…..you can’t change it! ☺️ Amazing pictures!! Yes, that's important to know. But first we want to know if the people of Tonga are okay. Do you have any news from any of your reporters in Tonga.

Looks like Earth is expanding!! I hope no one was hurt.😮 Things that bad should only exist in movies. People should think about the common problem and forget about politics and create peace. The earth let's off little steam and That's life get used to it. Mommy Earth is Mad cuz we Treat her Bad Now little Man is Sad Mars is Glad that Humans were just a Fad It's the natural way of the earth it not here to Accommodate for humans it just being normal self We are lucky

70,000 years ago, a volcanic eruption in Indonesia caused a global cooling event that may have lasted up to 1,000 years. This would have caused a catastrophic collapse in human, and many other species, on Earth. The human population would have been around 3,000 to 10,000 people.

Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Erupts AgainYesterday, GOESWest captured another explosive eruption of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano in the South Pacific Kingdom of Tonga. Fun fact: this volcanic island first formed between Dec. 2014-Jan 2015. Learn more about our ImageOfTheDay: Hmmmmmm.. And if a massive eruption caused a tsunami? Can anyone confirm what my bestie & I saw here? Ooph. “Fun Fact” is not a great phrase to use considering how many families are out there trying to find out of their loved ones have survived the current event.

Well for a start it's in an area that is seriously volcanically & tectonically active. Huge areas of the sea floor are being subducted & this causes volcanoes. All around the Pacific. That's why it's called the Pacific Ring of Fire. High silica, sticky lava, holds gas. Explosive. Cette explosion volcanique tout aussi majestueuse par son intensité que par sa forme:tête d'un lion!🦁🤔

Anyone else thinking Mother Nature has had enough of the 'cockroaches' called Homo Sapiens destroying her Along with the viruses, the eruptions, the weather etc... I'm on her side. HumanitySucks Η ζωή σας μπορεί να αλλάει μόνο με τις δικές σας προσπάθειες. - Ξέρξης Duh….geology and plate tectonics? One volcano = 700 years of Green house gas emissions. Haha climate bros

Global Cooling triggered the eruption, the Sun has burned up most of its nuclear energy & everyone is going to freeze Chequen esto. La información está brutal..... Powerful! Hope all safe in Tonga 🇹🇴!!!

Eruption of Undersea Volcano Near Tonga Triggers Tsunami Warnings Across PacificThe extent of the damage in the country of Tonga remains unclear. Hawaii and the West Coast experienced effects of the tsunami on Saturday morning.

The earth probably trying to boot us off and restart again Post-ban volcanoes are always welcome. Same thing with what happened back in October. Poot! Wait, what?

Vaisala’s GLD360 network , which uses a global distribution of radio receivers that can “hear” the lightning as intense bursts of radio waves. During the first two weeks, the system recorded sometimes a few hundred or a few thousand flashes per day—nothing unusual. “It was clearing its throat, I guess,” says Vagasky. There was nowhere else that was that electric on the planet last night. By Chris Vagasky Vaisala meteorologist But by late Friday into early Saturday, the volcano was producing tens of thousands of discharges. At one point, this Tongan volcano managed 200,000 discharges in a single hour . By comparison, the 2018 eruption of Indonesia’s Anak Krakatau had 340,000 discharges over a week or so. “I couldn’t believe the numbers I was seeing,” says Vagasky. “You don’t usually see that with a volcano. This is something else. There was nowhere else that was that electric on the planet last night.” It may have looked spectacular from afar, but up close it would have seemed apocalyptic, a constant blaze of light soundtracked by endless thunder and volcanic bellows. Most of the lightning wasn’t isolated to the plume but also hit the ground and the ocean. “This was extremely dangerous for anybody that’s sitting on any of the other Tongan islands, because you’ve got all this lightning coming down around you,” says Vagasky. So why has this eruption produced what is likely to be a record-breaking number of discharges? The presence of water always ups the odds of lightning, says Kathleen McKee , a volcano acoustic researcher at the Los Alamos National Lab in New Mexico. When magma mingles with a shallow body of water, the trapped water is aggressively heated and vaporized, blasting that magma into millions of tiny pieces. The more plentiful and the finer the particles you have, the more lightning you generate. The heat of the eruption also readily transports water vapor into the colder, higher reaches of the atmosphere, where it becomes ice, says Corrado Cimarelli , an experimental volcanologist at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. That provides plenty of additional particles for the ash to collide with and generate electricity. But the reasons this eruption produced quite so much lightning are impossible to determine at present. “Unfortunately, the volcano is quite remote and there [are] few constraints on the atmospheric profiles in the vicinity of the plume,” Cimarelli says. The Hephaestion hammer falls The astounding amount of lightning wasn’t the only prelude to the volcano’s cataclysmic blast. By Saturday morning, satellite imagery had revealed the island was no longer building itself: The middle of the volcanic isle had vanished , likely thanks to the uptick in explosivity. When it eventually unleashed a giant explosion, the shockwave ricocheted across the globe at breakneck speeds. It was immediately followed by a tsunami that slammed into several islands in the Tongan archipelago before racing across the Pacific. Jackie Caplan-Auerbach , a seismologist and volcanologist at Western Washington University in Bellingham, says the blast involved a “mind-boggling amount of energy.” But there isn’t enough data right now to ascertain the precise cause of the tsunami. These events require displacing a lot of water, which can happen through underwater explosions, through a collapse event—when lots of rock suddenly falls off the volcano into the sea—or a combination of these and other factors. With the ash column obscuring the volcano, and much of the volcano submerged underwater, scientists will need time to gather more indirect data before drawing any conclusions. Clues could come from the types of acoustic waves the blast generated or perhaps the redistribution of mass around the volcano. “The jury is still out,” Caplan-Auerbach says, but the fact that such an intense explosion and potent tsunami came out of this single, relatively small volcanic isle “speaks to the incredible power of this eruption.” And although not the cause of the main tsunami, the shockwave itself triggered another big wave: The