Swamps Can Protect Against Climate Change, If We Only Let Them

6/28/2022 1:32:00 PM

Wetlands absorb carbon dioxide and buffer the excesses of drought and flood, yet we’ve drained much of this land. Can we learn to love our swamps?

Swamps, Nature

In an essay drawn from her forthcoming book, Annie Proulx writes about the importance of preserving wetlands, which absorb carbon dioxide, sustain regional water resources, and stabilize the earth’s climate.

Wetlands absorb carbon dioxide and buffer the excesses of drought and flood, yet we’ve drained much of this land. Can we learn to love our swamps?

The great Southern coastal swamps of the United States were and are treasures of the natural world. Some have been exploited and damaged beyond recognition; some are still rich and wonderful, preserved as wildlife refugia or parks. Visitors can share the amazement and delight of the botanist William Bartram, whose exploratory travels in Georgia and Florida between 1765 and 1776 yielded writings and drawings that show a wild, tropical South—warily sensitive Seminoles, violent and crafty alligators, exquisite unnamed flowers, masses of bayonet-like grasses, colossal black oaks. Every fly-fisher will appreciate his description of the mayfly hatch:

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We offer work from home !!!! If you have a smartphone or a pc 💻, I will teach you how to Earn € 3000 or more a week via cryptocurrencies without sending your money to anyone. If you are interested Probably not true. look at my boobs😘 Americans were led to believe they needed to drain a swamp but instead got bogged down in a quagmire.

This article fails to metion beavers ONCE, and lack of beavers is more of a reason for wetland loss than anything in the article. Pretty massive miss.

Opinion | The Supreme Court’s right-wing revolution isn’t slowing a bitGuns, abortion, prayer in schools, and next up is the government's ability to fight climate change. They've caught the tiger by the tail, bless their hearts. Now your tax dollars can go to the local madrasa and kids can put up druid shrines and pentagrams at football games.

The fight against climate change could be a victim of the war in Ukraine.President Biden said the world’s wealthiest democracies would ban imports of Russian gold, as their summit in Germany sought ways to further isolate Moscow. Russia remained defiant, unleashing a barrage of missiles at Ukraine’s capital. Nice to see Germany and Netherlands fire up their coal plants and shutter their nukes. Climate Crisis my ass. The reality of 'sustainable energy' has hit. Stupid, dumb leadership. This is laughable. We are governed by ignorant specialists, who've created a propaganda machine they can now not neither stop nor find the alternatives. This is unprofessionalism

Stronger Security for Smart Devices To Efficiently Protect Against Powerful Hacker AttacksEngineers demonstrate two security methods that efficiently protect analog-to-digital converters from powerful attacks that aim to steal user data. Researchers are racing against hackers to develop stronger protections that keep data safe from malicious agents who would steal information by eaves How about a random password generator? Find it.

Tick Hunting: The Prey Are Tiny, and the Bait Is HumanAn increase in ticks and tick-related diseases in New York has made the work of tick-collectors more urgent, with teams heading out to locations where ticks thrive: meadows and high grass, the edges of forests and trails, and even some parts of suburbia. Some might say the life of that tick is sacred and you have no right to remove it from your body! It doesn’t matter the health risk it presents to you! Pro-life!

Infrastructural Crisis in Schools Is Harming Student Health and LearningThe majority of U.S. public schools are ill-equipped to handle climate change, putting the health of students at risk.

Hundreds protest for climate justice as G7 leaders meet in BavariaHundreds of protesters marched in the south ern German town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen on Sunday, near where leaders of the Group of Seven countries are meeting, demanding action on climate change.

Shopping Cartoon by Paul Noth It is in and around wetlands that the greatest blossoming of biodiversity has occurred—it is not too much to say that we owe our existence to this planet’s wetlands, including fens, bogs, and swamps.Which leaves one more major case to be decided in this term.To counteract Russia and China, the G7 welcomes smaller nations to its summit.Adam Zewe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology June 26, 2022 MIT engineers demonstrated that analog-to-digital converters in smart devices are vulnerable to power and electromagnetic side-channel attacks that hackers use to “eavesdrop” on devices and steal secret information.

Our wholesale destruction of wetlands for the sake of a few decades of growing wheat, rice, soy, and palm oil has been breathtakingly short-sighted. Once again, we are shocked into recognition that most of us live only for the moment. The decision in that case, West Virginia v. The great Southern coastal swamps of the United States were and are treasures of the natural world. Credit. Some have been exploited and damaged beyond recognition; some are still rich and wonderful, preserved as wildlife refugia or parks. Just as the court satisfied the long-held desires of gun advocates and antiabortion activists, this case could be a gift not just to industries hoping to spew more pollution into the air, but also to every antigovernment radical dreaming about the day the federal government sees its ability to address profound national problems cut off at the knees. Visitors can share the amazement and delight of the botanist William Bartram, whose exploratory travels in Georgia and Florida between 1765 and 1776 yielded writings and drawings that show a wild, tropical South—warily sensitive Seminoles, violent and crafty alligators, exquisite unnamed flowers, masses of bayonet-like grasses, colossal black oaks. Hackers, for example, can measure the electric current drawn by a smartwatch’s CPU and use it to reconstruct secret data being processed, such as a password.

Every fly-fisher will appreciate his description of the mayfly hatch: Innumerable millions of winged beings, voluntarily verging on to destruction, to the brink of the grave, where they behold bands of their enemies with wide open jaws, ready to receive them. Complex cases come before the justices, who then examine them in light of their deep knowledge of the Constitution and the law to arrive at a reasoned decision. Christof Stache/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images For global powers, some of the most important attendees of this year’s Group of 7 may not be its members, but a handful of small nations they have invited to join them. But . . What’s actually playing out is a highly coordinated political strategy designed and executed by three groups: Republican politicians, conservative activists and Republican-appointed judges. . The German presidency of the G7 this year asked five nonmember states to attend the weekend conference at Elmau Castle in the Bavarian Alps. gay and tranquil each meets his beloved mate in the still air, inimitably bedecked in their new nuptial robes. West Virginia v. Minimizing power consumption and cost are critical factors for portable smart devices, says Hae-Seung Lee, the Advanced Television and Signal Processing Professor of Electrical Engineering, director of the Microsystems Technology Laboratories, and senior author of the most recent research paper.

What eye can trace them, in their varied wanton amorous chaces, bounding and fluttering on the odiferous air! Bartram was the son of the Philadelphia Quaker John Bartram, who had been appointed Botanist for the American Colonies by George III. John Bartram made the country’s first botanical garden on his Philadelphia property. But the larger issue the case addresses is how much authority an agency such as the EPA has to regulate — in this instance, how much it can regulate the greenhouse gas emissions that worsen climate change. “I think that’s the reason to get them there: to convince them to work toward common values, and not see this as just a venture of what one can consider the traditional West. Father and son often went on botanical expeditions together. One such was to Georgia’s lower Altamaha, where in 1765 they first discovered the Franklinia, in a sandhill bog. The legislative text can’t lay out every last technicality and every last question that will ever come up in the future, so agency experts have to be able to decide what the law requires. This small, beautiful tree is now extinct in the wild but continues to delight American gardeners, who grow specimens all descended from those few seeds collected by William Bartram on his Georgia travels. Yet G7 leaders will have to be careful in how they frame their appeals. A related paper, written by first-author and graduate student Maitreyi Ashok; Edlyn Levine, formerly with MITRE and now chief science officer at America’s Frontier Fund; and senior author Chandrakasan, was recently presented at the IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference.

Thinking of the Bartrams, I once planted the closely related Stewartia in my garden, while I was living in Port Townsend, Washington; it grew handsomely but did not flower during my time there. The CPP never actually went into effect. A valuable medicinal plant was the Bartrams’ second find. “It grows twelve or fifteen feet high,” William Bartram wrote, “with large panicles of pale blue tubular flowers, specked on the inside with crimson. But the justices still chose to take this case even though the central question is moot. Pushed to the back of the line on access to coronavirus vaccines, some now face the fear of famine as the war impedes shipments from Russia and Ukraine, which together provide a quarter of global grain exports.” This was Pinckneya pubens , the Georgia “fever tree,” a natural source of quinine used by Native Americans to treat tick fever, muscle cramps, parasites, and malaria. At times, the travels were dangerous or pestiferous, as when Bartram fell asleep next to his campfire to enjoy “but a few moments, when I was awakened and greatly surprised, by the terrifying screams of Owls in the deep swamps around me . One vehicle they’re using is the “major questions doctrine,” which says it’s fine for agencies to decide minor questions about how a law should be implemented, but if there’s something really consequential, an agency can’t go where Congress hasn’t specifically and explicitly ordered it. Credit: Courtesy of the researchers A noninvasive attack To conduct a power side-channel attack, a malicious agent typically solders a resistor onto the device’s circuit board to measure its power usage.

.” Tensions have flared at other forums. . Where’s the line between a major question and a minor question? Wherever the conservative majority wants to draw it. which increased and spread every way for miles around, in dreadful peals vibrating through the dark extensive forests.” This past spring, in New Hampshire, I heard amorous owls similarly whooping and caterwauling in the woods.” We don’t yet know how far they’ll go in this case. At a climate conference this month in Bonn, Germany, some nations called out Western countries for planning new gas projects to compensate for bans on Russian fossil fuels while pushing poorer states for more climate action. One of Bartram’s more admirably descriptive passages pinpoints the belligerence of the “subtle greedy alligator”: Behold him rushing forth from the flags and reeds. An ADC takes an unknown input voltage, perhaps from a biometric sensor, and converts it to a digital value.

His enormous body swells. It’s nearly impossible to imagine Congress passing something like the Clean Air Act or even the Affordable Care Act today, since the country is closely divided and Republicans have so effectively engineered minority rule that allows them to stop nearly everything they don’t like. His plaited tail brandished high, floats upon the lake. “You also have to show some serious commitment. The waters like a cataract descend from his opening jaws. The conservative justices already did it with the Voting Rights Act, which has lost almost all its meaning after being by this court, and now they’re poised to do it with the Clean Air Act. Clouds of smoke issue from his dilated nostrils. The earth trembles with his thunder. An attacker can monitor the power supplies and use them to train a machine-learning model that reconstructs output data with surprising accuracy .

When immediately from the opposite coast of the lagoon, emerges from the deep his rival champion. They suddenly dart upon each other. The boiling surface of the lake marks their rapid course, and a terrific conflict commences. They now sink to the bottom folded together in horrid wreaths. The water becomes thick and discolored. By introducing some randomness into the conversion, the leakage is independent from what the individual operations are,” Ashok explains.

Again they rise. . . . Again they sink. Both methods are resilient against power and electromagnetic side-channel attacks without hurting the performance of the ADC.

The American biologist and ornithologist Brooke Meanley, who died in 2007, knew intimately every swamp corner that the Bartrams had visited two centuries earlier. He spent most of his professional life in the Southern swamps. Born in Maryland in 1915, and educated at the University of Maryland, Meanley worked as an ornithologist for the Department of the Interior. In his work, he took thousands of pictures of swamp habitats and birds—including many that no longer exist. During the Second World War, he served for four years, and was stationed in Georgia, rehabilitating returning soldiers with damaged bodies and psyches. Chen’s technique, which is more complex, is designed for high-speed applications like video processing.

His way was to take the jittery men on hikes and bird walks through nearby forests and swamps. One can only guess how many bird-watchers and amateur naturalists found mental balance and lifelong interests in the natural world through these expeditions. Certainly they learned from him that cutting old-growth forests removed vital bird habitat. Meanley’s years in and around the Southern water lands are encapsulated in his book “Swamps, River Bottoms and Canebrakes.” I had never heard of the Slovac Thicket until I read Meanley’s description: “For its size, the fourteen-acre Slovac Thicket, located in the heart of the Grand Prairie near Stuttgart, Arkansas, packed the most wildlife excitement per acre that I have ever known. In these chips, protection would only turn on when the chip detects a side-channel attack, which could boost energy efficiency while maintaining security.

” It’s a good bet that a sky totally black with twenty million birds, such as he saw and photographed that day, cannot now be seen. Swamps and birds go together; when the swamp disappears, so do the birds. The New World warblers (a.k.a. This is going to be critical in applications such as health care, where data privacy is critical.

wood warblers), a group of about fifty small passerine birds that migrate from South and Central America to the boreal forests of Alaska and Canada, were Meanley’s favorites. Many are brightly colored, and their complicated high-pitched songs are difficult to hear. They flicker and flit through branches and reeds like sunlight on a windy day and are a challenge to see. In a perfect world, a warbler can live for a decade, but in the world of predatory house cats, wind turbines, and enormous glass buildings a warbler is lucky to live two years. Meanley found that the bottomlands of the I’On Swamp, in South Carolina, were a choice habitat for the Bachman’s warbler, once the seventh most common migratory bird, annually flying up from Cuba to breed in the blackberry swamps and cane thickets of the Southeast United States. Levine and Anantha P.

The swamp, named for a landowner, Jacob I’On, was the hunting ground for an early American ornithologist, the Reverend John Bachman, who in 1833 first found the songbird. His friend John James Audubon listed the warbler in his “Ornithological Biography.” As other wetlands were drained and cut, warblers found a refuge in the I’On. Meanley counted himself fortunate to have twice seen a Bachman’s warbler in his lifetime—in 1958 and 1963. In his day, he knew that the species was near extinction.9772837 The research is funded, in part, by the MITRE Innovation Program, the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program, the MathWorks Engineering Fellowship, the Defense Advanced Research Protection Agency, the Office of Naval Research, Analog Devices, and the MIT Center for Integrated Circuits and Systems.

It has not been seen since 1988 and is now presumed to have joined the passenger pigeon and the ivorybill. For Meanley, the prince of Southern swamps was the Okefenokee, which contained up to twenty-five feet of peat deposits, and was once a haunt of the ivorybill. In describing the swamp’s charms, he wrote that it had everything: “The live oak hammocks, alligators and large wading birds, and the legends. In my judgement it is the most picturesque swamp in North America.” It was, he observed, a mosaic of lakes, shrub bogs, and cypress heads and bays, and though much of its cypress had been cut in the early twentieth century, fifty years later, when he was back in the Okefenokee, lusty regrowth allowed him to say that the swamp “looks today as it did when it was the stronghold of the Seminoles and Creeks.

” When I was in my twenties, my then husband and I sometimes vacationed in the Georgia islands—St. Simons or Sea Island—and we went once to the Okefenokee for a motorboat outing. For hours, we prowled the dark water at low speed, bathed in the damp, heady Southern air that always made me happy when I stepped off the plane into its distinctive perfume. I could not count all the wading birds that stalked in the shallows like tall, aloof models. We glided past cypress and their peculiar pointy knees.

Our guide said the knees breathed for the cypress. He pulled up to a small island and waved his hand with a grandiose gesture at the mossy ground. I stepped out of the boat and felt the ground move in an undulating roll. It was a mat of sphagnum moss, and although some people say it is like walking on a waterbed, its billowy heave seemed to me more like a wave of dizziness before you pass out—a very slow falling sensation although you remain upright. My most intimate swamp experience came one summer when I lived in a remote and ramshackle house in Vermont with a beaver-populated swamp half a mile down in the bottomland.

I went to the swamp almost every day by a circuitous route through the woods, passing a patch of pitcher plants and two or three sundews, across a brook, following the beavers’ tree-drag ruts to an old stick dam. There were trout in this swamp and beautiful painted turtles. I watched the amazing acrobatics of dragonflies with disbelief that they were actually doing what I saw them do. Even when I sat on the back porch high above the swamp I thought I could catch the green smell of bruised lily pads. Once, after weeks away, I came back to the house in the late afternoon.

I had started reading Norman Maclean’s story “A River Runs Through It” on the plane ride home and decided to read to the end before I went inside the house. It was an utterly quiet, windless day, the light softening to peach nectar. I read the last page and its famous final line, “I am haunted by waters.” I closed the book and looked toward the swamp. Sitting on a stone wall fifteen feet away was a large bobcat who had been watching me read.

When our eyes met, the cat slipped into the tall grass like a ribbon of water, and I watched the grass quiver as it headed down to the woods, to the stream, to the swamp. After the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804-06 and the Erie Canal’s gradual opening from 1825 onward, the country’s swelling population pushed into the new Western territories. The Great Black Swamp, a product of the excess of mire left over from the glacial melting of the Ice Age-era Lake Erie, and which covered much of Ohio and parts of Michigan and Indiana, inspired visceral revulsion. The Black Swamp froze itself blue in winter and simmered under the summer sun. It was forty miles wide and a hundred and twenty miles long, an elm-ash watery woodland well stocked with snakes, wildcats, moose, birds, malaria-carrying mosquitoes, and unnamed demons, immovably in the way of all who were trying to go west.

Travellers forced to splash through swamps under attack from blackflies, no-see-ums, and deerflies, or to make long, tiresome detours around watery areas, complained vociferously and called to the heavens for drainage. By the eighteen-fifties, farmers noticed that raised stream banks in parts of the swamp were made of dry black soil. They picked up handfuls of it, rubbed it between their fingers, felt the friability and tensile strength, judged its tilth. Then they cut down the stream-bank trees, plowed and planted, and harvested tremendous crops. They said what every farmer in newly opened peatland has ever said as they gathered the first harvests: “This is some of the most productive soil on earth.

” Other farmers noticed, and since stream-bank acres were limited, a few men with experience in wet soils tried drainage with ditches and tiles. Excited by their success, the farmers attacked the Black Swamp; a mad make-your-own-land rush was on. In the eighteen-eighties, an Ohio man, James B. Hill, frustrated by the slow work of laying drainage tiles, invented a machine he called the Buckeye Traction Digger. Every farmer wanted one, and the Black Swamp began to dry out.

Pro-drainage legislation helped the process along, and woe betide the landowner who resisted his neighbor’s drain work. In 1915, Ben Palmer of Minnesota wrote a legal guide to drainage. Chapter 4—“Drainage Legislation and Adjudication”—explains, “Thirty-six states of the Union have now enacted general drainage laws for the purpose of providing the legal machinery which is necessary if drainage work involving any considerable amount of land is to be successfully carried on.” By the early twentieth century, only a pinch of the original Black Swamp still existed—the rest was “some of the most productive soil on earth.” It was taken as a stroke of luck that drainage tiles could be made from the clay deposits beneath the good peaty soil—in a way, the Black Swamp paid for its own annihilation.

But a few generations later the productive soils were depleted; the nutrients in organic soils will disappear when they are not replenished. Manure grew scarce as tractors replaced horses. The farm world welcomed synthetic fertilizer. Time passed, and the Maumee River, which drains the Ohio cropland watershed, became a major source of pollution in Lake Erie. I was once on a train that stopped for hours on a bridge over the Maumee River to let freight traffic through.

There was no sign—frothy scum, iridescent gloss, or bright algae—to show that just below the train flowed Lake Erie’s poison enemy. Aside from the joys of draining, there was another pot of gold at the end of the swamp: fortunes for the nineteenth-century woodland owners and professional timbermen who cut down the wetland forests not only of Ohio but of Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Georgia, Louisiana, Florida, and any other state north or south that had swamp forests—taking irreplaceable giant elm, ash, oak, birch, poplar, maple, basswood, hickory, and chestnut. Ohio residents, by and large, did not appear to miss their state’s swampland. Sharon Levy, a science writer who specializes in water and wetland issues today, wrote of the mark the Black Swamp made on Ohioans: The tough people who conquered the Great Black Swamp did so at great personal expense, and they’ve passed down a deep and abiding loathing of wetlands. They are considered a menace, a threat, a thing to be overcome.

These attitudes are enshrined in state law, which makes impossible any action, including wetland restoration, that slows the flow of runoff through those miles of constructed drainage ditches—the very conduits that, after each heavy rainfall, deliver thousands of metric tons of phosphorus and nitrogen to the Maumee, and onward into Lake Erie from which millions of people drink. One authority on water, William Mitsch, has suggested that if ten per cent of the old Black Swamp soils were allowed to become wetlands again they would cleanse the runoff, yet Ohioans remain powerfully anti-wetland. Even private efforts to restore small wetland areas are met with neighbors’ complaints about noisy frogs and fears of flooding. Still, despite all odds, there exists the Black Swamp Conservancy, a land trust that oversees twenty-one thousand acres of wetlands. Hundreds of active Black Swamp Conservancy members are doing their best to restore and protect remnants of this great swamp.

Can they persevere? My mother’s favorite book when she was a teen-ager, in the nineteen-twenties, was one that she loved for its swamp setting, Gene Stratton Porter’s “A Girl of the Limberlost.” The Limberlost Swamp is in northeast Indiana, forty miles west of the Great Black Swamp. Porter’s home was near the Limberlost, which, though small at thirteen thousand acres, was still a diverse and complex system of streams and ponds eventually draining into the Wabash River. The Limberlost was made up of timber, reeds, sphagnum moss, orchids, sundew, pitcher plants, and grasses that nurtured great crowds of waterbirds and migratory birds, snakes, frogs and other amphibians, deer, muskrat and beaver, mink, and an encyclopedia of insects, including rare moths and butterflies. There are at least two and probably more stories of how the name Limberlost originated.

In one, a man named James Miller, so physically agile he was called Limber Jim, was hunting in the swamp. He became hopelessly lost, walking in deadly circles before he began to blaze trees in a straight line. His friends found him and referred to the swamp ever after as the place where Limber was lost. Another story refers to Limber Jim Corbus (what is it with these flexible Indiana men?), who also set out for a day’s hunt in the swamp and became lost, but blazed no trees and was never found. “I’ve got all the first-name key chains they don’t put on the rack.

” .