The two sprawling metro areas — one rich, one poor — offer a vision of what could be a watery future for 600 million coastal residents worldwide.four feet by the end of the century , with projections of more ferocious storms and higher tides that could upend the lives of entire communities. Many people face the risks right now. Two sprawling metropolitan areas offer a glimpse of the future. One rich, one poor, they sit on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean: the San Francisco Bay Area (population 7 million) and metropolitan Manila (almost 14 million). Their history, their wealth, and the political and personal choices they make today will shape how they fare as the water inevitably comes to their doorsteps. San Francisco Manila Pacific Ocean In both places, it turns out, how you face the rising sea depends mostly on the accident of your birth: Whether you were born rich or poor, in a wealthy country or a struggling one, whether you have insurance or not, whether your property is worth millions or is little more than a tin roof. And, in both places, climate change has magnified years of short-sighted decisions. Manila allowed groundwater to be pumped out so fast that the land sagged and turned into a bowl just as the sea was rising. The Bay Area allowed people to build right at the water’s edge, putting homes, highways, even airports at risk of catastrophic flooding. But people tend to hold on, often ingeniously, as the water rises around them. In some cases that’s because their properties are worth a lot, for now, at least, or because they have so little that they have nowhere else to go. Now, Manila and the Bay Area face tough choices. They could adapt to the rising tide, which could mean moving people out of harm’s way. Or, they could try to force the water to adapt to their needs by raising their defenses. For leaders, politically tough decisions lie ahead. What do they save on the water’s edge, what do they forsake and how do they reimagine their coastal cities in an age of climate disruptions? The Bay Area and Metropolitan Manila are both big and growing, with a lot of people and things to protect on the coast. How they deal with their circumstances today may offer lessons, for better or worse, for coastal cities elsewhere. “Are we going to decide by not deciding, and wait for the water to reach our doorsteps?” asked Aaron Peskin, a member of the San Francisco board of supervisors. “The biggest challenge is getting society to understand it, grapple with it, address it, plan for it, discuss the trade-offs.” Metropolitan Manila Rising water, sinking city Desiree Alay-ay is in the thick of trade-offs. Ms. Alay-ay, 30, grew up in a low-lying, flood-prone neighborhood on the northern fringe of Manila. It is not what she wants for her newborn baby. She wants to move, and take her parents with her. Climate change has exacerbated a longtime problem in Manila. Because of a proliferation of fish ponds and the rapid extraction of groundwater, the ground has been subsiding. As a result, since the early 1990s, , or double the global average. Desiree Alay-ay at home in the Malabon area of Manila. Storms repeatedly sweep away spindly-legged bamboo and tin houses on the water. People flee for a while, only to come back because they have nowhere better to go. In low-lying neighborhoods, like Ms. Alay-ay’s, roads have been raised multiple times. Pariahan, a village just north of the city line, is now permanently underwater. “Climate change doesn’t create its own impacts. It magnifies wrong policies,” said Renato Redentor Constantino, executive director of the Manila-based Institute for Climate and Sustainable Cities. “This is the case with sea level rise. A large part of Metropolitan Manila is facing more water-related impacts because of decades of myopic, cross-eyed land use planning.” More than 30 years ago, before Ms. Alay-ay was born, her parents, migrants from the countryside, built a small house in Malabon, the only neighborhood they could afford in Manila. The water pooled up in the streets every rainy season. When they were kids, Desiree and her brother sneaked out and swam in the streets sometimes. Leaky sewers meant human waste sometimes floated by, which they referred to as “bazookas.” Only tricycle cabs could ply through floods; when the water rose, her parents took her to school in a rented boat. Roads have been raised several times in low-lying areas like Malabon. The city fought back by raising the road. So, Desiree’s parents raised their house to stay above the road. They poured cement and sand on the floor, four times in 30 years, as though adding layers to a wedding cake. Everyone lived like this. One neighbor raised the floor so high that the original kitchen sink is now ankle-high. Another abandoned the house altogether; its roof is barely above street level now, and water hyacinths have taken over the rooms. Ms. Alay-ay is trying to move her family out of Malabon. “I want my baby to have a good future,” she said. Ms. Alay-ay’s neighbor, Rorencia Trupa, 92, and family members. A bamboo extension built onto a flooded home in Pariahan, just outside Metro Manila. Anna Lampitoc and her children. They were moved to public housing after a typhoon destroyed their home outside a sea wall. A home in Pariahan. Its original concrete foundation is now underwater. It was only after Ms. Alay-ay had a baby that she set her mind to getting out of Malabon. “I want my baby to have a good future,” Ms. Alay-ay said. “I don’t want him to experience what I’ve experienced.” She wanted her parents to come, too, so they could watch the baby while she and her husband went to work. But they had other plans. Leave the baby with us, her mother, Zucema Rebaldo, offered. But we’re not moving. This is our home. “This was a happy place for us,” Mrs. Rebaldo said on a Sunday afternoon when I went to visit. “Even if people say one day it will be wiped out from the map. No question, I am staying.” A home on stilts in Pariahan that’s been raised three times. “You need some sort of rational, organized retreat from the coast,” one policy analyst said. Images of Christ looked down from the walls. Roosters crowed. Everyone knows her here, she said. They call her Lola Cema — Lola means grandmother, Cema is short for Zucema. They help one another out. “I will die in this place,” she said. Her daughter listened quietly. She had heard this before, and, this afternoon, her face washed over with pain. “It’s hard,” she said. “As their child I want them to move out of here to a place that’s not flooded.” Months of negotiations had ended in a deadlock. Ms. Alay-ay’s dilemma is magnified manyfold in a megacity like Manila. Millions of the city’s poorest live in hazardous, low-lying areas that are already lashed by tropical storms. Climate change is projected to make those storms even more intense and more frequent. But, leaving those areas can mean being even farther from where you make a living. Or losing the neighborhood health clinic you’ve been going to for years. Or being marooned in a neighborhood where there are no tricycle cabs, let alone public transportation. Forcing people to move away from the coast is not enough, said Antonia Yulo-Loyzaga, a member of the board of directors of the Manila Observatory, a research organization. They need to be able to find work nearby, or an efficient public transportation system to get there. That doesn’t exist now; average commutes are two hours or more each way. “You need some sort of rational, organized retreat from the coast,” she said. “There’s no option unless you want people to live in constant fear.” San Francisco Bay Area A political lightning rod A rising sea underscores the missteps of the past in the Bay Area, too. The Pacific has risen 4 to 8 inches along the Northern California shore over the last century — and so, too, the San Francisco Bay, the ocean’s largest estuary in the Americas. Depending on the growth of greenhouse gas emissions, the Pacific could rise 2.4 to 3.4 feet by 2100 , which is why the California Coastal Commission has encouraged city governments to start planning for the future, either by fortifying their flood defenses, restoring wetlands, or, in some instances, making people move. That is as difficult in the Bay Area as it is in Manila. “People’s properties and investments are at risk,” Jack Ainsworth, head of the commission, said in an interview. “It becomes very political and very emotional.” Unlike Manila, Bay Area municipalities are wealthy. And many of them are already paying handsomely to fortify high-value coastal infrastructure at risk. Voters in San Francisco have approved a $425 million bond measure to start fortifying a sea wall along the bayfront road, the Embarcadero. Along the road sits some of the city’s most expensive real estate; below it sits a subway line, a light rail tunnel, and part of the city’s sewage infrastructure. Meanwhile, the builders of a new real estate development in a former industrial area called Mission Creek are raising the old roads and warehouses by as much as 10 feet. And the San Francisco airport, which sits on tidal marshlands, is getting a $587 million makeover to raise its sea wall. John Raymond at home in Pacifica, Calif. Farther south, a suburban community called Foster City, built on steadily subsiding landfill, has raised property taxes to increase the height of a levee that protects the area from storm surges. Nearby, county officials have rebuilt another levee to protect a golf course, along with a low-income community called East Palo Alto. And on San Francisco’s rugged Pacific shore, on Ocean Beach, a caravan of dump trucks is shifting sand to control erosion, while a portion of the adjacent coastal road known as the Great Highway is being moved inland. “We basically built everything just about at the high tide line,” said Laura Tam, a policy director at SPUR, a Bay Area urban planning and research group. “Nothing was built thinking of future changes in tides. We didn’t think about sea level rise.” The Embarcadero in San Francisco. Voters have approved a $425 million bond measure to fund a sea wall. Water pumps at the San Francisco airport. The site is getting a $587 million makeover to raise its sea wall. Construction vehicles shifted sand in an effort to fight erosion at Ocean Beach in San Francisco. Alan Grinberg pays for a wall of intricately layered boulders to slow the erosion of the bluff below his home in Pacifica. The OceanAire apartment complex in Pacifica. Built in the 1970s, it initially had a wide, grassy lawn facing the ocean. Nowhere is the danger more starkly on display as it is in Pacifica, a suburb south of the city, where coastal bluffs are so swiftly eroding that city officials have already demolished some properties before they could fall into the water. And this is where John Raymond’s dilemma is like a mirror image of what Desiree Alay-ay faces across the ocean. Around the time her parents built their house in Malabon, Mr. Raymond, a bankruptcy lawyer, bought his house on a bluff on the edge of the sea. The sound of the waves is a daily soundtrack. One look from his window, and he can tell if it’s a good day to surf. He loves it here. He wants to stay for as long as possible. But Mr. Raymond, 60, is also keenly aware of the risks. The force of the waves has broken his garage doors a few times. His neighbor’s windows have been broken by the pebbles tossed up by the beach. The only thing that protects his property from a rising sea, he knows, is a publicly funded sea wall right out front, erected to safeguard a sewer line and a coastal road. In a bad storm, when the waves pound that wall, his house shakes. His fear is that one day, the wall collapses — and his house gets red-tagged for demolition. “If my house gets condemned because the sea wall fails and the ocean comes to the front door, I have to leave, and that’s that,” he said. “I’m taking the risk my house goes to zero.” The soft, sandy bluffs have been eroding for thousands of years. Climate change is accelerating that process, though, said Charles Lester, a former Coastal Commission official who now directs the Ocean and Coastal Policy Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The tides are higher and the waves are more frequently coming up to the foot of the bluffs. On a gray Monday morning, Mr. Lester stood at the edge of the bluff on the north end of town, on a walking path that ribbons around an apartment complex called OceanAire. He pulled up on his phone a picture taken in the 1970s, when the complex was built: A wide grassy lawn lay in front. That’s gone. Even when he first came here 10 years ago, the bluff was 90 feet wider. The bluff has stepped back since then. Today, at its narrowest point, a few steps separate an apartment balcony from the cliff’s edge. A sea wall had to be built — and then rebuilt, after it failed. A pile of boulders sits at the bottom of the wall to stave off damage from the waves. “I see the challenge that the entire state and many states are facing: how to manage development along an inherently hazardous shoreline that is going to be increasingly hazardous under sea level rise and climate change,” Mr. Lester said. Sue Vaterlaus, the former Pacifica mayor, on the municipal pier. All that armoring, as it’s known, has saved the apartment complex. But it has come with a public cost: The beach has narrowed. In some parts, there is no beach left. That is the problem facing many Bay Area communities: How much do you armor the coast, what do you choose to save, and who will have to move? Managed retreat, as it’s called, has become a political lightning rod. Money complicates matters in other ways: Property taxes are a key source of revenue. Forcing people to move away would punch holes in city budgets. And anyway, who would pay to buy out homeowners? Pacifica, for instance, can’t. Some single-family houses on the bluff are worth upward of $1 million. Already, there’s been unmanaged retreat in Pacifica. Some sea walls crumbled, at one point endangering a row of apartments. The 52 tenants were entitled to zero compensation. They just had to move — in one of the most expensive counties in the state. The city spent $620,000 on demolition. Other apartments, built years ago when the bluffs were wider, are now precariously close to the edge. In an interview in December, Sue Vaterlaus, who was the Pacifica mayor at the time, said she was unsure about their future. “It’s a hard thing,” she said. “I’m not in favor of managed retreat, but at some point some of them may have to go.” Pariahan, the Philippines The water ‘just came and never left’ To visit the village of Pariahan, just north of the Manila city limits, is like visiting the last residents of the mythical city of Atlantis. Pariahan, an island once connected to the mainland by a strip of land, at one point had about 100 houses. You could pick oysters from the sea and Java plums from the trees. Children went to school here. On Sundays, there was Mass at the local church, its door facing Manila Bay. I hired a boatman to ferry me and a photographer to Pariahan from the mainland. First came a crowded little island, then a few solitary houses standing on berms, then many more abandoned houses with window frames staring out like vacant eyes. Then, finally, a cluster of houses, standing on stilts, and boats parked out front. There were salt flats around Pariahan long ago, then fish ponds, which drew the water from under the ground. The land began to slowly sink, and by the time a powerful storm came along 10 years ago the island had become like a bowl. The water rose up and poured in. “It just came and never left,” Benedicta Espiritu, 53, a lifelong resident, recalled. Pariahan was submerged. Ms. Espiritu, one of the few who remain here, raised the floor of the old house three times, and then built a new house on bamboo stilts. The school roof has blown off. So Pariahan children now must pay for a 30-minute boat ride to attend class, which means they miss more often than not. Once a month, worshipers wade into church; a priest is ferried in from a nearby village. Ms. Espiritu doesn’t plan to leave. She’s grown accustomed to fleeing the storms and cleaning up afterward. She fears moving anywhere else will be prohibitively expensive. Never mind that Pariahan is drowning. “We don’t want to leave,” she said. “When you have coffee, sugar and rice, life is good. The air is free. There’s a solar panel for electricity.” “We can live here.” But Ms. Espiritu’s family has been told that the holdouts of Pariahan will have to leave soon. There’s a proposal to build a private airport nearby, on the edge of the slowly rising Manila Bay. Panghulo Barangay, in Metro Manila. Jason Gutierrez contributed reporting from Manila. Ms. Sengupta has received a George Polk Award for her work in Congo, Liberia and other conflict zones. Mr. Lee has been a member of two teams that received Pulitzer Prizes; one for coverage of the Sept. 11 terrorist attack on New York City and the other for photographs chronicling the conflict in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Correction : Feb. 13, 2020 An earlier version of this article gave an incorrect title for Laura Tam. She is a policy director at SPUR, not the executive director. Correction : Feb. 13, 2020 An earlier version also implied incorrectly that Sue Vaterlaus is still the Pacifica mayor. While she was the mayor when interviewed in December, her term ended shortly after. Read 246 Comments Read more: The New York Times
2metres and Florida becomes a nice diving paradise. I assume humans move away from the coast,and away from high rise buildings. Everything depends on the ability of humans to take measures and action,now. Immutable laws of nature's changes are to powerful,universe has its own laws that has been before human existance,won't ch f us
So should we believe you or the infallible-Obama-who purchased $15 million waterfront mansion despite being The Godfather of Paris Agreement. trump Why is the idea that municipalities bail out $1M+ homeowners even suggested as being up for discussion? Take that money, & the money being used for sea walls, and invest in real solutions the benefit the greater good instead of the ones who opted in to their current situation
Yo we should nuke the ocean. The Big Moist will think twice next time it tries to rise up n shit. Hey. Free service to clean up all the poop! Overpopulation killed the Earth It appears from the video of San Francisco area that this is just normal erosion. The homes are still at least 30 feet above sea level. Normal erosion not sea level rise. Land sinks and rises all over the world. Totally normal. Check out PHI PHI in Thailand the sea is same level
Can you ask BHO why he just spent all the money on a seaside mansion? The ocean has been eroding and building up its shores since the beginning of time. Add Sydney
In Manila and San Francisco, Rising Seas Are a Crisis Right NowWhat do you do when the sea comes for your home, your school, your church? To understand how millions of people are coping with rising seas, our climate reporter SominiSengupta and our photographer nytchangster traveled to Manila and San Francisco . SominiSengupta nytchangster I think Corana virus 🤣 SominiSengupta nytchangster Build a sea wall, hopefully trump pays for it since he likes walls. SominiSengupta nytchangster Go fish?
Reduce building sizes and vehicle numbers to reduce destruction showing a picture at high tides proves how much you lie about the seas rising, Navy said the seas have not risen now go back and take a picture at low tide Imagine your state taking in a couple million refugees from Florida and Mississippi ClimateAction ClimateEmergency ClimateChange
I hate that people will lose there coastal homes and AirBnb investments due to nature doing her thing but that is the chance they took when they purchased or built there property. It relates to investing in a stock that takes off and then takes a nose dive. You win and lose. Not to worry. According to Nancy Pelosi an emergency evacuation plan is already is already in effect with hoards of ppl moving out of the city.
Maybe the rising sea will clean up the poop covered streets in SF If true , Obama woulda never ever just bought his big ole beach mansion . These are two different pictures of two different places? Um, ok? ✌️🤟deuces brah 💎 Move further away In Montauk NY
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Both cities are filthy and could use a good wash down. And the deplorable folks live inland. Who’s smart? Impossible Obama just bought a 15 million dollar mansion on an island This is the address of the best Amazon offers. Like the page now and take advantage of the opportunities now. San Francisco kind of deserves it, look how they treat the homeless and the poor.
I’ve heard San Fran could use a good washing. I’m not sure what all that street feces and heroin needles will do you the aquatic life though. Say good things with your mouth. Why would banks offer loans for homes in such high risk areas? Duh, it’s high tide...
Merkel Succession Crisis in Germany Leaves Europe Leaderless, TooEven before Chancellor Angela Merkel’s chosen successor announced this week that she would step aside, sending German politics into deeper disarray, there were complaints about German leadership in Europe Hmmmm maybe they should look to the past for a more united stronger Germany? GERXIT Wtf. She's still around? Thought she abandoned ship years ago. Get her out of there. She ruined Europe.
No thanks The NY Times is stooping to low levels to get free advertisement The human feces and needles will get cleaned up then. not building on the shore.... that could help At that time you can think about whether ClimateChangeIsReal or a hoax. Why would banks still give 30yr loans if this was even remotely close to being a problem. Doubt they’d risk not getting their money back.
“Because of...the rapid extraction of groundwater, the ground has been subsiding. As a result, since the early 1990s, sea levels have risen by as much as 5 to 7 centimeters a year, or double the global average.” Sea levels (rising since last ice age) are the problem? Security measures should be strengthened Build a medium wall to withstand the impact of the tsunami, protect America, protect God, protect me
House prices will go up in Manila if they're under water anyway. Houses built on silts and clay will sink into the ground / houses built atop a cliff that is subjects to wind and wave action will fall into the sea regardless ... sea level is less of an influence in these two areas
China's Communist Party faces its biggest crisis since SARSChina's ruling Communist Party faces a fraught decision: Admit the viral outbreak isn’t under control and cancel this year’s biggest event. Or bring 3,000 legislators to Beijing in March and risk fueling public anger at government handling of the disease. Maybe they can hack some more corporations in America and steal more data. Appearances public health
Eh hmm, bullishit, cough This story would make me concerned if I wasn't aware of the fact that the Obamas bought a 12 million dollar beachfront home in Martha's Vineyard. Why would a insider like president Obama buy waterfront property if the sea level is rising? 🤔 I think San Francisco should worry about their other problems first. typhoidfever
Sóng đến thì đón sóng ! Ko đón được thì tức là bất tài vô dụng ,lâu nay tàn sát thiên nhiên và muôn loài,thì giờ chúng trả thù! Quay đầu xin lỗi những gì đã làm,nhìn lại chính mình,hiểu ra thì tự khắc sóng yên biển lặng. Flooding in SF would help evict the tech millionaires / wash the poop off the streets - win-win.
Fascists and terrorists strike again. green Terra 🌏 oceans water climate 🌍 nature planetorplastic 🌎 There's a tidal wave every 250 years on the west coast. There hasn't been one in 325 years. Expect a tidal wave from Vancouver, British Columbia to San Francisco, California that will wipe out the coastline. Prepare for the worst with life jackets.
😂😂😂😂😂 The sky is falling!! Move inland there is plenty!! Too close to that water!!!
Australia's climate crisis has been building for years but no one listenedAustralia was already grappling with extreme heat and one of the worst droughts on record when devastating bushfires began. Scientists had warned for more than a decade that an extreme bushfire season was coming — and that the climate crisis was to blame. and also started by humans ... Most of it was arson ffs - quit lying This is a blatant lie
😂the sea has been rising at the same rate for the last 10,000 years. Now they’re “bracing”? What a crock of crap. The real problem is : why they built houses on the beach? Over the sand... Can’t read without creating account 👎👎☠️❗️ Climate change will win...that cannot be denied. Mildly confusing article. Lots of talk of land sub-siding, Manila & Foster City Sea Cliffs getting eaten away by surf, Pacifica Dum places to build, New Orleans Sea Levels are rising, am I worried, nope, my house is at 316 ft We can only hope for Volcanic eruptions to cool us
I mean, is this a serious question? When the ocean comes, you move (or buy a boat). There is no 'fighting the ocean'. Of course, we could try to stop the change by reducing reliance on CO2 emitting chemicals, but apparently the human mind isn't built to handle such obviousness. Scientists at Flinders University, Adelaide, set up new, modern, tide-gauges in 12 Pacific islands.Recently, the whole project was abandoned as there was no sign of a change in sea level at any of the 12 islands for the past 16 years.
What about New Orleans and Miami Crazy shit Doesn’t look like the sea is rising to me 🤔
Bloomberg Once Linked 2008 Crisis to End of Redlining Bias in Home LoansMichael Bloomberg said in 2008 that the end of redlining, in which banks discriminated against people of color trying to buy homes, was responsible for the housing crisis. It's the latest example of his past comments surfacing as he runs for president. And trump would not rent to blacks Disqualifying Jeez, it's almost like he used to be a Republican or something.
Two cities the world can do without Don’t answer Call the Dutch. They solved their sea level crisis years ago. Not sure about Manilla, but the rising seas of feces are def a problem in SF Um that’s not San Francisco! Pacifica perhaps. Trump says there are no rising seas and there is no climate change. Let’s move to Mars...
How are beaches and shorelines made magic? Lol...erosion. I'm sure it's President Trump's fault. After all ...
It's called erosion. The ocean tends to do that to beaches.