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TIMELINE: Ugat ng agawan ng teritoryo sa pagitan ng Pilipinas at China

Paano nga ba nagsimula ang tensiyon sa pagitan ng Pilipinas at China?

5/11/2021 4:45:00 PM

TIMELINE: Ugat ng agawan ng teritoryo sa pagitan ng Pilipinas at China

Paano nga ba nagsimula ang tensiyon sa pagitan ng Pilipinas at China ?

 Pero paano nga ba nagsimula ang tensiyon sa pagitan ng dalawang bansa?Taong 1994 hanggang 1995 unang beses na nagtayo ang China ng mga estruktura sa Panganiban o Mischief Reef.Ang bahura ay bahagi ng Kalayaan island group sa South China Sea na may mga bahaging inaangkin di lang ng Pilipinas at China kundi maging ng Taiwan at Vietnam.

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Nasa 127 nautical miles lamang ang layo nito sa Palawan at sakop ng 200-mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) ng Pilipinas, kumpara sa mahigit 1,600 nautical miles na distansiya nito sa China.Ang mga kubo na sinabi ng China noon na magsisilbing silungan lang daw ng kanilang mangingisda, isa na ngayong military garrison ng China.

Nangyari ito 2 taon lamang matapos tuluyang umalis ang mga tropang Amerikano sa mga base militar ng Pilipinas.Abril 2012 naman nang magkagirian ang mga barko ng Pilipinas at China sa Panatag o Scarborough Shoal, na kilala rin bilang Bajo de Masinloc.Nagsimula ang lahat nang masabat doon ng barko ng Philippine Navy ang ilang barkong pangisda ng China na may mga ilegal na huling live corals at taklobo o giant clams. headtopics.com

Pero pinigilan sila ng mga barko ng China na hulihin ang mga mangingisda.Pumalit sa barko ng Philippine Navy ang barkong sibilyan ng Philippine Coast Guard at Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources para maibsan ang tensiyon matapos magreklamo ang China na barko ng militar ang ipinadala ng Pilipinas.

Pero kalaunan, humigit kumulang 80 barko ng China ang pumalibot sa lugar.Mahalagang malaman na ang Bajo de Masinloc ay hindi kabilang sa inaangkin ng anumang bansa bago ang 2009 nang igiit ng China at ng Taiwan na pag-aari nila ang halos lahat ng South China Sea na sakop ng tinatawag nilang "9-dash line."

Tahasang sinabi ni Foreign Affairs Secretary Teodoro Locsin, Jr. na nagkamali ang administrasyong Aquino sa pag-atras ng mga barko, alinsunod sa binalangkas na kasunduan ng Amerika para maibsan ang tensiyon."The participation of the United States was to stop people from attacking each other, they think it's their job... Then United States told both sides, 'withdraw.' Now if you believe your government... that that is yours, why will you withdraw?" sabi ni Locsin. 

Pero giit ng noo’y Philippine Ambassador to the US Jose Cuisia, China ang hindi sumunod sa kasunduan."We wanted an easing of tension. We thought China was acting in good faith when they agreed and this is why I cannot understand why the President blames Secretary [Albert] del Rosario for that situation," ani Cuisia. headtopics.com

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Kasabay nito, inatasan ni noo'y Pangulong Noynoy Aquino si dating Sen. Antonio Trillanes na magsilbing back channel negotiator para pababain ang tensiyon at mabawasan ang mga barko ng China sa lugar. "My mission, generally, was to deescalate the tension in the shoal. Specifically, it entailed the reduction of the number of Chinese ships in the area. The issue of sovereignty was not covered and was never discussed," ani Trillanes sa isang Facebook post. 

Matagumpay aniyang nabawasan ang bilang ng barko ng China mula sa 80 hanggang 100 pababa sa 3. Ang pagtanggi ng China na iatras ang 3 natitirang barko ang naging mitsa para isulong ng administrasyong Aquino ang kaso laban sa China sa arbitral court sa The Hague, Netherlands.

Pormal na naisampa ang kaso noong Enero 2013.Bago ito, opisyal na pinangalanang West Philippine Sea ang tubig na saklaw ang Luzon Sea, Kalayaan island group, at Bajo de Masinloc o Scarborough Shoal noong Setyembre 2012. Ang Scarborough ay bahagi ng teritoryo ng Pilipinas na nasa 124 nautical miles, kanluran ng Zambales.

Pero giit ng China, sila ang may-ari nito na tinawag nilang "Huangyan island" dahil sila umano ang nakadiskubre ng lugar noong Yuan dynasty.Hulyo 2016, isang buwan matapos maluklok si Duterte, nagpasya ang abitral court na walang basehan o karapatan ang China na angkinin ang halos kabuuan ng South China Sea. headtopics.com

"[T]he tribunal concluded that, to the extent China had historic rights to resources in the waters of the South China Sea, such rights were extinguished to the extent they were incompatible with the exclusive economic zones provided for in the convention," ayon sa award ng tribunal.

Tungkol naman sa Mischief Reef, snabi ng tribunal na sakop ito ng EEZ ng Pilipinas. Nilabag din daw ng China ang sovereign rights ng Pilipinas sa lugar nang magtayo ito ng mga estruktura at artipisyal na isla sa Mischief reef at mangisda ang mga Chinese nang walang pahintulot ng Pilipinas.

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Pero itinuturing ni Duterte ang desisyong ito na "papel" lamang.Sa kabila ng pinakahuling pahayag ng Pangulo, sinabi ng DFA na pangunahing polisiya pa rin ng Pilipinas ang ipinahayag ni Duterte sa United Nations general assembly kung saan itinaguyod niya ang desisyon ng arbitral court bilang bahagi na ng international law.

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